Plan Quality Management

This article contains most of the important information you need to know about Plan Quality management process in order to answer questions related to this topic in the PMP Exam, I recommend you review this type of articles 1 week before your exam date, all information mentioned are based on PMBOK Guide 6th edition and PMP Exam Prep 9th edition for Rita Maclhy’s, ITTO refers to Inputs, Tools & Techniques and outputs.

This process is a part of Planning Process group and Quality Management Knowledge Area with the following ITTO’s

Inputs:

  1. Project Management Plan ( Requirements and Risk Management Plans , Stakeholder Engagement Plan , Scope Baseline  )
  2. Project Charter
  3. Project Documents ( Assumption log , Requirements Documentation , requirements traceability Matrix , Stakeholder Register , Risk Register )
  4. Organizational Process Assets
  5. Enterprise Environmental Factors

Tools & Techniques:

  1. Expert judgment
  2. Data Gathering ( Benchmarking , Brainstorming , Interviews )
  3. Data Analysis ( Cost Benefit analysis , Cost of Quality )
  4. Decision Making (Multi criteria decision analysis )
  5. Data Representation ( Flow Charts , logical data model , matrix diagrams , mind mapping )
  6. Test and Inspection planning
  7. Meetings

Outputs:

  1. Quality Management Plan
  2. Quality Metrics
  3. Quality Checklists
  4. Project management plan Updates ( Risk Management plan and Scope Baseline )
  5. Project Document Updates ( Lessons learned register , requirements traceability Matrix , Stakeholder Register , Risk Register )

 

  • PMP Exam highlights manufacturing in questions related to quality because it is an important factor in the industry.
  • Quality is the degree to which the product fulfils it is requirements.
  • Requirements gathering efforts and requirements documentation are very important to the quality management efforts.
  • Grade refers to a general category or classification for a deliverables or resource that indicates common functions but varying technical specifications.
  • Quality management definitions,
  1. Creating and following policies and procedures to ensure that a project needs it was intended to meet from customer perspective.
  2. Ensuring a project is completed with no deviations from the project requirements.
  • Gold Plating, giving the customer extras .
  • Accuracy refers to correctness while Precision refers to how closely conforms to target.
  • Quality Management Concepts
  1. Joseph Juran , He developed the 80/20 rule , and defined quality as “fitness for use “
  2. Philip Crosby , He developed the concept of cost of poor quality , zero defects and prevention over inspection , he believed that quality is “conformance to requirements “
  3. Edwards dimming , He developed 14 points to total quality management and created the Plan-Do-Act-Check ( PDCA) cycle , he stated that 85% of quality problem is managers’ responsibility .
  4. Prevention over inspection, It is better to inspect work to find problems and prevent them in first place.
  5. Marginal Analysis , Looking for the point where the benefits or revenue to be received from improving quality equals the incremental cost to achieve that quality , when the point is reached , you should stop tying to improve quality .
  6. Continues improvement ( Kaizen ) , Involves continuously looking for small improvements as per Japanese theory.
  7. Just In time ( JIT) , States that holding raw materials in inventory is too expensive and unnecessary , a company using JIT must achieve a high level of quality in their practices.
  8. Total Quality Management (TQM) , It encourages companies and their employees to focus on finding ways to continuously the quality of their products
  9. Responsibility for Quality , states that the project manager has the ultimate responsibility for the quality of the product of the project , senior management has the ultimate responsibility for quality in the organization as a whole .
  10. Impact of poor quality ,
  11. Increased Cost.
  12. Decreased Profits.
  13. Low Morale.
  14. Low customer satisfaction.
  15. Increased Risk.
  16. Schedule delays.
  17. Capability Maturity Model Integration ( CMMI) , Improves overall software quality.
  • Plan Quality management process defines quality for the project and how it will be achieved, it identify all relevant organizational or industry practices, standards and requirements for the project quality.
  • Cost-Benefit Analysis, technique used to weight the benefits versus the costs of quality efforts to determine the appropriate quality level.
  • Cost of Quality ( COQ ) , Means making sure the project is not spending too much to achieve a particular level of quality , Cost of conformance ( Quality training , Studies , surveys ) , Cost of nonconformance ( Rework, Scrap, Inventory Costs, warranty costs and lost business ) .
  • Seven Basic Quality Tools :
  1. Cause and effect Diagram ( Fishbone , Ishekawa ) , it looks backward at what may have contributed to quality problems on the projects , the diagram shows the defect with potential and sub causes , maily used in defect analysis and quality requirements identification.
  2. Flow Chart ( Process Map ) , it shows how a process or system flows from beginning to end , how elements interrelate , alternative paths , used mainly to determine cost of quality ,help communicate the process t the team and watch a process how it flows to define potential quality issues.
  3. Check sheet ( Tally sheet) , mainly gathers data , used to track of data such quality problems , its primary purpose to gather data .
  4. Pareto Diagram ( Pareto Chart ) , a bar chart that arranges the results from most frequent to least frequent to help identify which root causes are resulting in the most problems, useful to identify potential problems using historical information , focuses attention on the most critical issues and separates the critical few from the uncritical many.
  5. Histogram, Displays data in the form of bars or columns in no particular order , useful to determine the most pressing probelsm.
  6. Scatter Diagram ( Correlation Chart ) , Tracks two variables to determine their relationships , can be used for estimation and forecasting.
  7. Control Chart , Determines if the process is stable using statistical sampling , it contains upper and lower control limits ( Inputs from organization ) , Specifications limits which are input by customer so that they should be within the limit of control limits to ensure customer satisfaction , The process is considered out of control if a data point falls outside the control limits or if they is a nonrandom data points such as rule of seven .
  • Poke Yoke, Japanese term that means “mistake-proofing” or “inadvertent error prevention.
  • Benchmarking, looking at other projects to take ideas.
  • Design of experiment (DOE) , It determines statistically what variables will improve quality , it is fast and accurate technique ,
  • Statistical Sampling, Taking a sample to do measurements , the size of the sample and frequency of measurements are determined as part of plan quality and actual sampling is done in control quality .
  • 3 or 6 Sigma , Sigma is another name for standard deviation and indicates how much variance from the mean has been established as permissible in a process, at 3 Sigma approximately 2,700 will have a problem and so on as follow :
  1. +/- 1 sigma is equal to 68.27%
  2. +/- 3 Sigma is equal to 99.73%
  3. +/- 6 Sigma is equal to 99.9999998%
  • Loss function, it is a financial measure of the users dissatisfaction with product performance.
  • Quality Function Deployment ( QFD ) , uses House of Quality (HOQ) to transform user demands and voice of customer (VOC) into design quality.
  • Kano Model , a model that differentiate features as ( Satisfy, delight and dissatisfy )
  • Force Field Analysis ( FFA ) , a technique that reviews any proposed action with proactive opposite forces.
  • Quality Metrics are one of the process outputs , it should be stated bu the project manager about the areas on the project that are important to measure and decide what measurements are acceptable.
  • Quality Checklists, it is a list of items to inspect , a list of steps to be performed or a picture of the item to be inspected With spaces to notes of defects if any .
  • Process Improvement plan , It helps save time by analyzing processes to find ways to increase efficiency and prevent problems.

 



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