Sequence Activites

This article contains most of the important information you need to know about Sequence Activities process in order to answer questions related to this topic in the PMP Exam, I recommend you review this type of articles 1 week before your exam date, all information mentioned are based on PMBOK Guide 6th edition and PMP Exam Prep 9th edition for Rita Maclhy’s, ITTO refers to Inputs, Tools & Techniques and outputs.

This process is a part of Planning Process group and Time Management Knowledge Area with the following ITTO’s


  1. Project Management Plan ( Schedule Management plan and Scope Baseline )
  2. Project Documents (Activity Attributes , Activity list ,Assumption log , milestones list )
  3. Organization process assets
  4. Enterprise environmental factors

Tools & Techniques:

  1. Precedence diagraming method
  2. Dependency Information
  3. Leads and Lags
  4. Project Management Information System



  1. Schedule network Diagram
  2. Project Document Updates ( Activity Attributes , Activity lists , Assumption log and milestones lists )


  • Each activity except the first and last should be connected to at least one predecessor and one successor activity with an appropriate logical relationship.
  • This process involves taking the activities and milestones and sequencing them in the order in which the work will be performed resulting in the project network diagram.
  • A network Diagram shows just dependencies, if duration estimates of the activities are added it can also show the critical path.
  • There is 3 methods to draw the network diagram ;
  1. Precedence diagraming method (PDM): here nodes or boxes represent activities while arrows show dependencies.
  2. Arrow diagraming method (ADM): activities are represented as arrows; dashed arrows represent dummy activities that show dependencies.
  3. Graphical evaluation and review technique (GERT): allows for conditional branching and loops , it is a computer simulation technique.
  • Logical relationships :
  1. Finish-to-Start , Activity must finish before the successor can start.
  2. Start-to-Start , Activity must start before the successor can start.
  3. Finish-to-finish , Activity must finish before the successor can finish.
  4. Start-to-finish , Activity must start before the successor can finish.
  • Types of Dependencies :
  1. Mandatory Dependency (Hard Logic), inherent in the nature of the project or required by the contract, identified by project team.
  2. Discretionary Dependency ( Soft Logic ) , the way an organization has chosen to do the work , it is identified by project team and it is very important in project schedule compression.
  3. External Dependency, based on the needs or desire of party outside the project , identified by project manager.
  4. Internal Dependency, based on the needs of the project , identified by the project manager.
  • Lead: it may be used to indicate that an activity can start before it is predecessor activity is completed.
  • Lag : it is the waiting time inserted between activities.
  • Padding: Extra time added to a schedule that you don’t really need, project manager just add to feel confident in the estimate , it is a sign of poor project management.

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